In the current review of aquatic literature from the past few days, we present the findings of a study on the impact of climate warming on fish habitat in Arctic lakes. We will also learn how climate change affects the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in the river environment, and what a study of porpoises’ responses to sound signals emitted by acoustic devices can say about environmental protection and public health. In turn, the results of studies by geologists from centers in Portugal and Germany prove that in a few tens of millions of years it will be possible for the Atlantic Ocean to close, preceded by the merging of the land masses of Europe and the Americas.

Surprisingly, in the context of global warming and its generally adverse effects, one can find positives. They are ancient artifacts that appear as a result of melting glaciers, which are a valuable source of information about people who lived centuries ago. Finally, we will learn the results of an experiment conducted on inland silversides, which looked at the effects of pesticides on their behavior and reproduction. The surprising results of this study underscore the need to monitor chemicals in the environment to protect the health of populations not only of fish and aquatic organisms, but also of humans.

1. major changes in fish thermal habitat diversity in Canada’s Arctic lakes due to climate change

Daniel P. Gillis, Charles K. Minns, Steven E. Campana, Brian J. Shuter. Major changes in fish thermal habitat diversity in Canada’s Arctic lakes due to climate change. Communications Earth & Environ 5, 89 (2024).

A study by scientists from Canada and Iceland has shown that there have been significant recent changes in the thermal diversity of fish habitats in the former’s Arctic lakes. The results of this study are important for understanding the impact of climate change on aquatic ecosystems and fish populations in the Arctic. Thermal changes in fish habitat can have far-reaching consequences for the entire lake ecosystem, underscoring the importance of further research on this issue.

The main conclusion from the results of the analysis is that the most significant factor disrupting the structure of fish communities is climate warming. The study used large-scale geospatial analysis of nearly 500,000. Canadian Arctic lakes of at least 10 hectares. Based on these, it can be concluded that the increase in maximum surface temperature, the extension of the ice-free period and the presence of thermal stratification have important consequences for the aquatic environment.

These changes may lead to the opening of lakes that were previously covered by deep winter ice, which will affect habitat diversity and the availability of warm and cool waters. The projected climate change requires adaptation of fishery management strategies to maintain the balance of aquatic ecosystems. Thermal changes in lakes can affect the distribution of fish species and other aquatic organisms, underscoring the need to monitor and protect the aquatic environment in the face of changing climatic conditions.

2. Contrary effects of increasing temperatures on the spread of antimicrobial resistance in river biofilms

Kenyum Bagra, David Kneis, Daniel Padfield, Edina Szekeres, Adela Teban-Man, Cristian Coman, Gargi Singh, Thomas U. Berendonk, Uli Klümper. Contrary effects of increasing temperatures on the spread of antimicrobial resistance in river biofilms. ASM Journals. mSphere (2024).

Riverine microbial communities serve an important function in counteracting the spread of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) that enter environmental microbiomes through wastewater. Studies have shown that increasing temperature can affect the invasion dynamics of wastewater-transported resistance genes into river biofilms. Higher temperatures may promote an increase in naturally occurring resistance genes, while foreign ones may be lost under such conditions. Climate change, including, among other things. temperature increase, can therefore have a significant impact on the effectiveness of ARG invasion in the river environment.

Infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a serious health problem, and the spread of ARGs is increasingly dangerous. Research suggests that climate change may be influencing this process by affecting river microbial communities. Higher temperatures may promote the spread of naturally occurring antimicrobial resistance genes, but at the same time may reduce the importance of foreign ARG invasion from wastewater. It is necessary to understand whether a river’s ecosystem is more susceptible to naturally occurring ARGs or those from external sources. Further research on this issue is key to predicting the effects of climate change on public health and strategies to combat antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

3. Response of Harbor Porpoises to Pingers and Acoustic Harassment Devices

Julika Voß, Armin Rose, Vladislav Kosarev, Raúl Vílela. Ansgar Diederichs Response of Harbor Porpoises to Pingers and Acoustic Harassment Devices. In: Arthur N. Popper, Joseph Sisneros, Anthony D. Hawkins, Frank Thomsen. The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life, Principles and Practical Considerations, p. 1-21, Springer, Cham (2023).

A study on the response of porpoises (Phocoena) to sound signals emitted by pingers and acoustic deterrent devices (AHDs) is important for understanding their effects on the behavior of these marine mammals. Porpoises are sensitive to sound, so the use of these devices in the environment can have a significant impact on their behavior and function. The results of such studies can help develop strategies to protect animals and minimize the negative effects of human activity.

Pingers and acoustic deterrent devices are used in various industries to protect marine mammals such as porpoises. Penguins emit acoustic signals with lower pressure levels and frequencies, which tends to make porpoises move closer to them. The selection of a suitable device should take into account not only cost and ease of installation, but also the desired range of acoustic signals and the minimization of areas exposed to sound. The selection of mitigation measures and regular monitoring should take into account animal habituation and the impact of signals on non-target species. Pingers and AHDs are effective tools for deterring porpoises from areas where they may be at risk of hearing damage or becoming entangled in fishing nets.

4. Atlantic Ocean Closing Soon: Formation of Atlantic Ring of Fire Draws Near as the Americas and Europe to Drift Back Together

João C. Duarte, Nicolas Riel, Filipe M. Rosas, Anton Popov, Christian Schuler, Boris J.P. Kaus. Gibraltar subduction zone is invading the Atlantic, Geology (2024).

Subduction initiation plays a key role in the Wilson cycle, which illustrates the consequences of tectonic processes leading to the formation, development and disappearance of the oceans. Subduction involves the overlap of one tectonic plate under another, leading to the recycling of oceanic (lithospheric) rock matter into the Earth’s mantle. The formation of new subduction zones in the context of the Atlantic Ocean is challenging, as it requires external forces such as far-field compression and tectonic plate movements.

Although the only force that can initiate the formation of a subduction zone is another subduction zone (excluding meteorite impacts and supercrustal plumes), there are already two such sites in the Atlantic (in the Caribbean and the Scotia Arc near Antarctica) that have been pushed out of nearby Pacific subduction zones. Another point where the subduction zone from the Mediterranean Sea penetrates the Atlantic Ocean is the Arc of Gibraltar. Geodynamic studies suggest that subduction in this region may continue to be active and affect Earth’s geological evolution by pulling the Atlantic oceanic plate underneath Africa and Europe, and this in turn will close the ocean.

However, before this happens, and before the land masses of the Americas and Europe reunite, the Atlantic Ring of Fire, also known as the Atlantic Subduction System, will form. This means that the surface where the Atlantic Ocean is located, as in the case of the Pacific Ring of Fire, could become a region with active earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

5. Archaeology on Ice, Featuring Dr. E. James Dixon, NOAA’s Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (An Introduction)

Stephen A. Montzka. Archaeology on Ice, Featuring Dr. E. James Dixon, Tanana Chiefs Conference (2024). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI). NOAA Global Monitoring Laboratory Website (2022).

Climate change, which occurs due to heat trapping by greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, nitrous oxide, can lead to an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme events such as droughts, storms and heat waves. The aforementioned phenomena affect ecosystems, both terrestrial and aquatic. Global warming is causing glaciers to melt, sea levels to rise and oceans to acidify. While this has serious environmental consequences, there are positives to be found. Global warming, contributing to the rapid melting of glaciers, is resulting in, among other things. the emergence of artifacts that have been frozen for thousands of years.

Archaeological discoveries on glaciers and ice sheets in Europe, South America and Mongolia are becoming more common. In North America, important finds have been discovered, among others. In the Rocky Mountains, the Canadian Yukon and Alaska. Most of these artifacts are made of perishable materials such as wood, bark and leather, making them quickly decay once they are removed from the ice. Dating them not only provides information about the rate of ice melt, but also about the people who inhabited these areas thousands of years ago. Preserved artifacts, such as ancient arrows, hunting tools and clothing, provide a better understanding of the lives of people in glacial environments centuries ago. However, if they are not properly collected and preserved, they can be lost forever.

6. Multigenerational, Indirect Exposure to Pyrethroids Demonstrates Potential Compensatory Response and Reduced Toxicity at Higher Salinity in Estuarine Fish

Sara J. Hutton, Samreen Siddiqui, Emily I. Pedersen, Christopher Y. Markgraf, Amelie Segarra, Michelle L. Hladik, Richard E. Connon and Susanne M. Brander. Multigenerational, Indirect Exposure to Pyrethroids Demonstrates Potential Compensatory Response and Reduced Toxicity at Higher Salinity in Estuarine Fish, Environmental Science and Technology 58, 5, 2224-2235 (2024).

Estuarine environments play a key role for many fish species, often serving as breeding sites. Global climate change (GCC) is affecting sea level rise and precipitation characteristics, causing salinity levels in estuaries to fluctuate, which in turn affects the functioning of these ecosystems. In addition, increasing the intensity of insecticide use in agriculture may alter their toxicity to fish under different salinity conditions. This underscores the need to understand the impact of chemicals on aquatic ecosystems and to monitor the environment.

Researchers at Oregon State University conducted an experiment on inland silversides(Menidia beryllina) to study the effects of three pyrethroid pesticides on their behavior and reproduction. The study found that fish exposed to pesticides showed reduced behavioral activity at the larval stage, while the second generation, which was not affected by the chemicals, showed excessive arousal. The study suggests that exposure to pesticides in early life can affect fish over the long term, and similar effects may occur in humans. This is an important finding that underscores the need to regulate the use of chemicals in the environment to protect the health of fish populations and potentially humans.

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